More than 90% of the world’s migrant population left their home places voluntarily and mostly for economic reasons; “economic migrants” who decided to leave their country of birth in search of employment.
The remaining 10% are refugees and asylum seekers who have fled to another country to escape persecution and conflict.
International migration undoubtedly poses serious challenges: pressure on public services and state resources, overcrowding, language barriers and cultural differences, increased level of pollution, racial tensions and discrimination. However, there is an opposite side of the migration phenomenon: the positive economic and social impact on host countries.
The below are some advantages of Migration for host country:
- Increases economic growth – The economic benefits of migration to the host country of low-skilled labourers often outweighs the risks and cost to the host. In some cases, it can even be said that immigrants are a vital part of the cultural fabric of many countries.
- Job vacancies can be filled – Migration can have a number of benefits for the host country. It has the potential to develop skills and fill job vacancies within the workforce, improve business productivity, and boost national productivity.
- Additional sources of tax for the host country – Some countries are experiencing a demographic crisis as the number of people in the country shrinks and the number of people able to work shrinks. However, this population decline can be used to their advantage by accepting immigrants from other countries. The pension gap can be filled by the contributions of new young workers and they also pay taxes.
- Can benefit locations where the majority of the population is old – When an economy begins to stagnate, fewer young people move into the area. This has a significant detrimental impact on services like healthcare and education that rely on a stable population. One solution is for migrants to migrate from their country of origin to the host country. As they are younger, they bring with them new ideas and skills that can help invigorate the economy.
- Favourable economic and cultural impact – In terms of economic development, migration has been shown to have a long-term positive impact. This is because immigrants bring skills and knowledge that may not be easily obtained or duplicated in the local population. In terms of cultural diversity, migrants contribute much to their countries’ social fabric and identity as they integrate with other culture groups within their host country.
- New innovations and ideas – Researchers who have studied immigrants in the United States say that their presence has resulted in a positive impact on society. They contribute to economic growth and make up for some of the skills that the native-born population lacks. Immigrants are also thought to be bringing new ideas and innovations, which is important since so many of today’s jobs require specialised knowledge.
There are also advantages of Migration for the country of origin:
- Reduction of unemployment – Migrating can have a positive impact on the country of origin. It can increase their economic stability, reduce unemployment, and improve their workforce’s productivity. In addition to that, young migrants can be seen as a source of innovation and talent.
- Developing countries benefit from remittances – Every day, migrants send money to their family members in developing countries. These remittances are an important part of the economy in such countries and can be used for investment in infrastructure, healthcare, education and security.
- Migrants bring back skills, contacts and other useful tools – Migration not only leads to social and economic benefits for host countries, but for countries of origin as well. Millions of migrants left their home countries and settled in another country, mostly a Western one. They usually return with savings, useful skills and contacts which help to drive economic growth, boost competitiveness and increase innovation for their country of origin.
Immigrants are neither a burden to public finance nor are they a remedy for addressing fiscal challenges. In most countries, except in those with a large share of older migrants, migrants contribute more in taxes and social contributions than they receive in individual benefits. Migrants arrive with skills and abilities, and so they supplement the stock of human capital of the host country. Moreover, evidence from the United States suggests that immigrants who are skilled contribute to boosting research and innovation, as well as technological progress.